24 February : Republic proclaimed, Paris; 2 March: rebellions in SW Germany; 6 March: Bavarian uprising; 11 March: Berlin; 13 March: Vienna and Hungary; 18 March: Italy revolts, starts in MilanThese were nationalist uprisings marked by various attempts to establish national democratic states. Within six months all had failed.
See Hobsbawm, E., 1988. The Age Of Capital: 1848-1875, New Ed edition. ed. Abacus, London.chap one.
On Chartists see http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist3.html
Photographs by William Edward Kilburn here
1st May 1851 : Queen opens Great Exhibition in Hyde Park.
George Cruikshank, The British Bee Hive, second version 1867. The first had been printed in 1840.
Cruikshank was an opponent of extending the franchise. The Bee hive stood for a vision of British society as natural, heirarchical and inflexible.
More on Cruikshank here.
Two Nations"Two nations; between whom there is no intercourse and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by a different breeding, are fed by a different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws." "You speak of--" said Egremont, hesitatingly. "THE RICH AND THE POOR." Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil 1845
Discussion of Sybil here
"It was very dark inside. The window-panes many of them were broken and stuffed with rags, which was reason enough for the dusky light that pervaded the place even at mid-day. After the account I have given of the state of the street, no one can be surprised that on going into the cellar inhabited by Davenport, the smell was so foetid as almost to knock the two men down. Quickly recovering themselves, as those inured to such things do, they began to penetrate the thick darkness of the place, and to see three or four little children rolling on the damp, nay wet brick floor, through which the stagnant, filthy moisture of the street oozed up; the fireplace was empty and black; the wife sat on her husband's lair, and cried in the dark loneliness."
Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton, 1848
Elizabeth Malcolm on Mary Barton, click here.
Elizabeth Gaskell - Gaskell Society
On Gaskell's visits to Newcastle in 1829 and 1830.
Images of the PRB paintings available here.
Illustrated: Rienzi vowing to obtain justice for the death of his young brother, slain in a skirmish between the Colonna and the Orsini factions, William Holman Hunt, 1848-9